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Cambridge Public Health

 

I study the relationship between health and exposure to environmental contaminants, including quantitative risk assessment and policy analysis.

Publications from Elements

Theses / dissertations

2020 (No publication date)

  • Prieg, L., 2020 (No publication date). Bringing economic inequality into coupled economic-environmental models
  • Old, RK., 2020 (No publication date). The Take Up and Use of Green Technologies in Low Carbon Communities: A Case Study of North West Cambridge
  • Book chapters

    2017

  • Crawford-Brown, D., Liu, H. and Silva, EA., 2017. An Agent-Based Model of Global Carbon Mitigation Through Bilateral Negotiation Under Economic Constraints: The Key Role of Stakeholders' Feedback and Facilitated Focus Groups and Meetings in the Development of Behavioral Models of Decision-Making
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-409548-9.09678-0
  • Silva, EMA., Crawford-Brown, D. and Liu, H., 2017. An agent-based model of global carbon mitigation through bilateral negotiation under economic constraints: the key role of stakeholders’ feedback and facilitated focus groups and meetings in the development of behavioural models of decision making
  • 2016

  • Thoung, C., Beaven, R., Zuo, C., Birkin, M., Tyler, P., Crawford-Brown, D., Oughton, EJ. and Kelly, S., 2016. Future demand for infrastructure services
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107588745.004
  • Journal articles

    2017

  • Jano-Ito, MA. and Crawford-Brown, D., 2017. Investment decisions considering economic, environmental and social factors: An actors' perspective for the electricity sector of Mexico Energy, v. 121
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2017.01.016
  • 2016

  • Xi, F., Davis, SJ., Ciais, P., Crawford-Brown, D., Guan, D., Pade, C., Shi, T., Syddall, M., Lv, J., Ji, L., Bing, L., Wang, J., Wei, W., Yang, KH., Lagerblad, B., Galan, I., Andrade, C., Zhang, Y. and Liu, Z., 2016. Substantial global carbon uptake by cement carbonation Nature Geoscience, v. 9
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2840
  • Crawford-Brown, D. and Crawford-Brown, S., 2016. Implications of the Reanalysis and Weight of Evidence Determination of Human Health Studies for Exposure to Perchlorates under Cumulative and Aggregate Risk Assessment Journal of Environmental Protection, v. 07
    Doi: 10.4236/jep.2016.712142
  • Cote, I., Andersen, ME., Ankley, GT., Barone, S., Birnbaum, LS., Boekelheide, K., Bois, FY., Burgoon, LD., Chiu, WA., Crawford-Brown, D., Crofton, KM., DeVito, M., Devlin, RB., Edwards, SW., Guyton, KZ., Hattis, D., Judson, RS., Knight, D., Krewski, D., Lambert, J., Maull, EA., Mendrick, D., Paoli, GM., Patel, CJ., Perkins, EJ., Poje, G., Portier, CJ., Rusyn, I., Schulte, PA., Simeonov, A., Smith, MT., Thayer, KA., Thomas, RS., Thomas, R., Tice, RR., Vandenberg, JJ., Villeneuve, DL., Wesselkamper, S., Whelan, M., Whittaker, C., White, R., Xia, M., Yauk, C., Zeise, L., Zhao, J. and DeWoskin, RS., 2016. The Next Generation of Risk Assessment Multi-Year Study-Highlights of Findings, Applications to Risk Assessment, and Future Directions. Environ Health Perspect, v. 124
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1289/EHP233
  • Kelly, S., Tyler, P. and Crawford-Brown, D., 2016. Exploring Vulnerability and Interdependency of UK Infrastructure Using Key-Linkages Analysis Networks and Spatial Economics, v. 16
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1007/s11067-015-9302-x
  • Jano-Ito, MA. and Crawford-Brown, D., 2016. Socio-technical analysis of the electricity sector of Mexico: Its historical evolution and implications for a transition towards low-carbon development Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, v. 55
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.10.153
  • 2015

  • Crawford-Brown, D., 2015. Application of Probabilistic Risk Assessment in Establishing Perchlorate and Goitrogen Risk Mitigation Strategies. Int J Environ Res Public Health, v. 12
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120910374
  • Crawford-Brown, D. and Gossé, J-B., 2015. Collective Finance Models for Sustainable Water Projects Journal of Environmental Protection, v. 06
    Doi: 10.4236/jep.2015.65046
  • Crawford-Brown, D., 2015. Regulatory Implications of Cumulative Risk for Perchlorate as an Iodide Uptake Inhibitor Journal of Environmental Protection, v. 06
    Doi: 10.4236/jep.2015.67066
  • Liu, Z., Guan, D., Wei, W., Davis, SJ., Ciais, P., Bai, J., Peng, S., Zhang, Q., Hubacek, K., Marland, G., Andres, RJ., Crawford-Brown, D., Lin, J., Zhao, H., Hong, C., Boden, TA., Feng, K., Peters, GP., Xi, F., Liu, J., Li, Y., Zhao, Y., Zeng, N. and He, K., 2015. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China. Nature, v. 524
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1038/nature14677
  • Shih, H-C., Crawford-Brown, D. and Ma, H-W., 2015. The influence of spatial resolution on human health risk co-benefit estimates for global climate policy assessments. J Environ Manage, v. 151
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.12.020
  • 2014

  • Liang, S., Liu, Z., Crawford-Brown, D., Wang, Y. and Xu, M., 2014. Decoupling analysis and socioeconomic drivers of environmental pressure in China. Environ Sci Technol, v. 48
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1021/es4042429
  • Chen, PC., Crawford-Brown, D., Chang, CH. and Ma, HW., 2014. Identifying the drivers of environmental risk through a model integrating substance flow and input-output analysis Ecological Economics, v. 107
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2014.08.002
  • 2013 (No publication date)

  • Crawford-Brown, DJ., Crawford-Brown, D., Chen, PC., Shih, HC. and Chao, CW., 2013 (No publication date). Climate Change Air Toxic Co-Reduction in the Context of Macroeconomic Modelling Journal of Environmental Management,
  • Crawford-Brown, DJ., Crawford-Brown, D., Barker, T. and Dessins, O., 2013 (No publication date). Ozone and PM Related Health Co-benefits of Climate Change Policies in Mexico Enivronmental Science and Policy, v. 17
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2011.12.006
  • Crawford-Brown, DJ. and Crawford-Brown, S., 2013 (No publication date). Cumulative Risk Assessment Framework for Waterborne Contaminants Journal of Environmental Protection, v. in press 2012
  • Crawford-Brown, DJ., 2013 (No publication date). The Precautionary Principle in Environmental Regulations for Drinking Water Environmental Science and Policy, v. 14
  • 2013

  • Liu, Z., Guan, D., Crawford-Brown, D., Zhang, Q., He, K. and Liu, J., 2013. Energy policy: A low-carbon road map for China. Nature, v. 500
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1038/500143a
  • Crawford-Brown, DJ., 2013. Assessing the Sensitivity of Climate Change Targets to Policies of Land Use, Energy Demand, Low Carbon Energy and Population Growth Journal of Environmental Protection, v. This output is forthcoming.
  • Li, J., Crawford-Brown, D., Syddall, M. and Guan, D., 2013. Modeling imbalanced economic recovery following a natural disaster using input-output analysis. Risk Anal, v. 33
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1111/risa.12040
  • 2012

  • Kelly, S., Shipworth, M., Shipworth, D., Gentry, M., Wright, A., Pollitt, M., Crawford-Brown, D. and Lomas, K., 2012. Predicting the diversity of internal temperatures from the English residential sector using panel methods Applied Energy,
  • Crawford-Brown, D., Barker, T., Anger, A. and Dessens, O., 2012. Ozone and PM related health co-benefits of climate change policies in Mexico ENVIRON SCI POLICY, v. 17
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2011.12.006
  • 2011

  • Skelton, A., Guan, D., Peters, GP. and Crawford-Brown, D., 2011. Mapping flows of embodied emissions in the global production system. Environ Sci Technol, v. 45
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1021/es202313e
  • Crawford-Brown, D. and Crawford-Brown, S., 2011. The precautionary principle in environmental regulations for drinking water Environmental Science and Policy, v. 14
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2011.02.002
  • Crawford-Brown, D. and Crawford-Brown, S., 2011. The precautionary principle in environmental regulations for drinking water Environmental Science and Policy,
  • Li, Y. and Crawford-Brown, DJ., 2011. Assessing the co-benefits of greenhouse gas reduction: Health benefits of particulate matter related inspection and maintenance programs in Bangkok, Thailand SCI TOTAL ENVIRON, v. 409
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.01.051
  • 2009

  • Kelly, SJ., Pollitt, M. and Crawford-Brown, D., 2009. Building performance evaluation and certification in the UK: is SAP fit for purpose? Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, v. 16
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.07.018
  • 2008

  • Schöllnberger, H., Mitchel, REJ., Redpath, JL., Crawford-Brown, DJ. and Hofmann, W., 2008. Detrimental and protective bystander effects: A model approach (Radiation Research (2007) 168, 5 (614-626)) Radiation Research, v. 169
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1667/0033-7587(2008)169[481:E]2.0.CO;2
  • 2007

  • Chu, HA. and Crawford-Brown, DJ., 2007. Inorganic arsenic in drinking water and bladder cancer: A meta-analysis for dose-response assessment International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, v. 4
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph200704040010
  • Schollnberger, H., Mitchel, REJ., Redpath, JL., Crawford-Brown, DJ. and Hofmann, W., 2007. Detrimental and protective bystander effects: A model approach RADIAT RES, v. 168
  • 2006

  • Chu, HA. and Crawford-Brown, DJ., 2006. Inorganic arsenic in drinking water and bladder cancer: A meta-analysis for dose-response assessment International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, v. 3
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph2006030039
  • 2002

  • Schollnberger, H., Mitchel, REJ., Azzam, EI., Crawford-Brown, DJ. and Hofmann, W., 2002. Explanation of protective effects of low doses of gamma-radiation with a mechanistic radiobiological model INT J RADIAT BIOL, v. 78
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1080/0955300021000034693
  • Crawford-Brown, DJ. and Hofmann, W., 2002. Analysis of radon-induced lung cancer risk by a stochastic state-vector model of radiation carcinogenesis Journal of Radiological Protection, v. 22
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1088/0952-4746/22/3A/323
  • Schöllnberger, H., Mitchel, RE., Crawford-Brown, DJ. and Hofmann, W., 2002. Nonlinear dose-response relationships and inducible cellular defence mechanisms Journal of Radiological Protection, v. 22
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1088/0952-4746/22/3/001
  • 2001

  • Crawford-Brown, DJ. and Hofmann, W., 2001. Correlated hit probability and cell transformation in an effect-specific track length model applied to in vitro alpha irradiation RADIAT ENVIRON BIOPH, v. 40
  • Ma, HW. and Crawford-Brown, DJ., 2001. The use of a multimedia risk analysis approach in designing waste management strategies J AIR WASTE MANAGE, v. 51
  • Schollnberger, H., Mebust, MR., Crawford-Brown, DJ., Eckl, PM. and Hofmann, W., 2001. Significance of cell-cycle delay, multiple initiation pathways, misrepair and replication errors in a model of radiobiological effects INT J RADIAT BIOL, v. 77
  • 2000

  • Crawford-Brown, DJ., 2000. Spatial stochasticity and correlated effects in dose-response relationships for environmental pollutants: a case study of radiation effects STOCH ENV RES RISK A, v. 14
  • Lau, C., Andersen, ME., Crawford-Brown, DJ., Kavlock, RJ., Kimmel, CA., Knudsen, TB., Muneoka, K., Rogers, JM., Setzer, RW., Smith, G. and Tyl, R., 2000. Evaluation of biologically based dose-response modeling for developmental toxicity: A workshop report REGUL TOXICOL PHARM, v. 31
  • Hofmann, W., Menache, MG., Crawford-Brown, DJ., Caswell, RS. and Karam, LR., 2000. Modeling energy deposition and cellular radiation effects in human bronchial epithelium by radon progeny alpha particles HEALTH PHYS, v. 78
  • Lau, C., Andersen, ME., Crawford-Brown, DJ., Kavlock, RJ., Kimmel, CA., Knudsen, TB., Muneoka, K., Rogers, JM., Setzer, RW., Smith, G. and Tyl, R., 2000. Evalaution of biologically based dose-response modeling for developmental toxicity: A workshop report Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, v. 31
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1006/rtph.1999.1360
  • 1997

  • Crawford-Brown, DJ. and Hofmann, W., 1997. The testing of radiobiological models of radon carcinogenesis needed for in vitro to in vivo extrapolations Environment International, v. 22
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-4120(96)00211-5
  • Ma, HW. and Crawford-Brown, DJ., 1997. Comparison of systems and single-medium approaches in environmental risk-based decision making: A case study of a sludge management problem Journal of Environmental Systems, v. 26
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.2190/8KP6-H4CV-5BB7-LP8U
  • Crawford-Brown, DJ., 1997. Virtue as the basis of engineering ethics Science and Engineering Ethics, v. 3
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1007/s11948-997-0049-8
  • 1994

  • Hofmann, W., Nosterer, M., Menache, MG., Crawford-Brown, DJ., Caswell, RS. and Coyne, JJ., 1994. Microdosimetry and cellular radiation effects of radon progeny in human bronchial airways Radiation Protection Dosimetry, v. 52
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1093/rpd/52.1-4.381
  • 1993

  • Crawford-Brown, DJ. and Hofmann, W., 1993. Extension of a generalized state-vector model of radiation carcinogenesis to consideration of dose rate Mathematical Biosciences, v. 115
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/0025-5564(93)90069-M
  • 1992

  • Crawford‐Brown, DJ., 1992. Modeling the Modification of the Risk of Radon‐Induced Lung Cancer by Environmental Tobacco Smoke Risk Analysis, v. 12
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1539-6924.1992.tb00705.x
  • Hofmann, W., Menache, MG. and Crawford-Brown, DJ., 1992. Microdosimetry of inhaled radon progeny Radiation Protection Dosimetry, v. 45
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1093/rpd/45.1-4.681
  • Hofmann, W., Lettner, H. and Crawford-Brown, DJ., 1992. A dose rate model predicting radon-induced lung cancer risk in rats Radiation Protection Dosimetry, v. 45
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1093/rpd/45.1-4.635
  • Gerber, GB., Kaul, A., Metivier, H., Bailey, MR., Smith, H., Stather, JW., Wegst, AV., Harrison, JD., Lord, BI., Watson, E., Oughton, DH., Roy, M., Sikov, MR., Taylor, DM., Crawford-Brown, DJ., Kaul, A. and Zvonova, IA., 1992. Panel discussion Radiation Protection Dosimetry, v. 41
    Doi: 10.1093/rpd/41.2-4.283
  • Crawford-Brown, DJ. and Hofmann, W., 1992. A unified theory of the effect of age on the biokinetics, dosimetry and radiobiology of alpha-emitting radionuclides in the human body Radiation Protection Dosimetry, v. 41
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1093/rpd/41.2-4.239
  • Crawford-Brown, DJ. and Walker, JT., 1992. A biophysical theory of the kinetics of organ growth as a function of age and the relationship to a predictive theory of radiation risk Radiation Protection Dosimetry, v. 41
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.rpd.a081255
  • 1991

  • Hofmann, W., Crawford-Brown, DJ., Menache, MG. and Martonen, TB., 1991. Carcinogenic risk of non-uniform alpha particle irradiation in the lungs: Radon progeny effects at bronchial bifurcations Radiation Protection Dosimetry, v. 38
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1093/rpd/38.1-3.91
  • Crawford-Brown, DJ. and Hofmann, W., 1991. An effect-specific track-length model for radiations of intermediate to high LET Radiation Research, v. 126
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.2307/3577815
  • Crawford‐Brown, DJ., 1991. Cancer Fatalities from Waterborne Radon (Rn‐222) Risk Analysis, v. 11
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1539-6924.1991.tb00583.x
  • 1990

  • Hofmann, W., Nosterer, M., Crawford-Brown, DJ. and Hutticher, A., 1990. Spatial distribution patterns of energy deposition and cellular radiation effects in lung tissue following simulated exposure to alpha particles Radiation Protection Dosimetry, v. 31
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.rpd.a080706
  • Cothern, CR., Crawford-Brown, DJ. and Wrenn, ME., 1990. Application of environmental dose-response models to epidemiology and animal data for the effects of ionizing radiation Environment International, v. 16
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/0160-4120(90)90153-W
  • Crawford-Brown, DJ. and Hofmann, W., 1990. A generalized state-vector model for radiation-induced cellular transformation International Journal of Radiation Biology, v. 57
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1080/09553009014552501
  • Shyr, LJ. and Crawford-Brown, DJ., 1990. Ionisation distribution for nanometre subcellular volumes irradiated by high LET parallel beams Radiation Protection Dosimetry, v. 32
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.rpd.a080726
  • 1989

  • Crawford-Brown, DJ. and Hofmann, W., 1989. The role of variability of dose in dose-response relationships for alpha emitting radionuclides Radiation Protection Dosimetry, v. 28
  • Crawford-Brown, DJ., 1989. The biokinetics and dosimetry of radon-222 in the human body following ingestion of groundwater Environmental Geochemistry and Health, v. 11
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1007/BF01772067
  • Checkoway, H., Pearce, N., Crawford-Brown, DJ. and Cragle, DL., 1989. The authors reply American Journal of Epidemiology, v. 129
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a115177
  • 1988

  • Crawford-Brown, DJ., 1988. Bounded rationality and the rational bounding of environmental models J. ENVIRON. SYST., v. 18
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.2190/9923-JM1G-XKCQ-H7A4
  • Loomis, DP., Watson, JE. and Crawford-Brown, DJ., 1988. Predicting the occurrence of radon-222 in groundwater supplies Environmental Geochemistry and Health, v. 10
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1007/BF01758591
  • Checkoway, H., Pearce, N., Crawford-brown, DJ. and Cragle, DL., 1988. Radiation doses and cause-specific mortality among workers at a nuclear materials fabrication plant American Journal of Epidemiology, v. 127
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a114801
  • Crawford-Brown, DJ., 1988. The microscopic structure of radiation interactions in cells. Science progress, v. 72
  • Hofmann, W., Crawford-Brown, DJ. and Martonen, TB., 1988. The radiological significance of beta emitting hot particles released from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant Radiation Protection Dosimetry, v. 22
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.rpd.a080100
  • 1987

  • Carpenter, AV., Flanders, WD., Frome, EL., Crawford-Brown, DJ. and Fry, SA., 1987. CNS cancers and radiation exposure: A case-control study among workers at two nuclear facilities Journal of Occupational Medicine, v. 29
  • Dupree, EA., Cragle, DL., McLain, RW., Crawford-Brown, DJ. and Teta, MJ., 1987. Mortality among workers at a uranium processing facility, the Linde Air Products Company Ceramics Plant, 1943-1949 Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, v. 13
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.2074
  • Crawford-Brown, DJ. and Shyr, LJ., 1987. The relationship between hit probability and dose for alpha emissions under selected geometries Radiation Protection Dosimetry, v. 20
  • Crawford-Brown, DJ., 1987. Age-dependent lung doses from ingested 222Rn in drinking water Health Physics, v. 52
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1097/00004032-198702000-00003
  • Crawford-Brown, DJ. and Cothern, CR., 1987. A bayesian analysis or scientific judgment of uncertainties in estimating risk due to <sup>222</sup>Rn in U.S. Public drinking water supplies Health Physics, v. 53
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1097/00004032-198707000-00001
  • 1984

  • Crawford-Brown, DJ. and Wilson, J., 1984. Observations on very long-term removal of uranium compounds Health Physics, v. 47
  • Crawford-Brown, DJ., 1984. A unified approach to age-dependent metabolic modeling Health Physics, v. 46
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1097/00004032-198404000-00007
  • Crawford-Brown, DJ., 1984. An age-dependent model of tritium metabolism following mixed (organic/inorganic) intakes Health Physics, v. 46
  • 1983

  • Crawford-Brown, DJ., 1983. Truth and meaning in the determination of radiogenic risk. IRB, v. 5
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.2307/3563710
  • Crawford-Brown, DJ., 1983. An age-dependent model for the kinetics of uptake and removal of radionuclides from the G.I. Tract Health Physics, v. 44
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1097/00004032-198306000-00002
  • Leggett, RW. and Crawford Brown, DJ., 1983. The role of age in human susceptibility to radiation SCI. PROGRESS, v. 68
  • Reports

    2015

  • Kelly, S., Yeo, JZ., Coburn, A., Copic, J., Crawford-Brown, D., Foley, A., Neduv, E., Ralph, D. and Saidi, F., 2015. Unhedgeable risk: how climate change sentiment impacts investment
  • Conference proceedings

    2012

  • Ghosh, A., Seidel, C., Tang, G., Hubbs, S., Raucher, B. and Crawford-Brown, D., 2012. How much risk in this cup? Identifying meaningful opportunities for health risk reduction American Water Works Association Annual Conference and Exposition 2012, ACE 2012,
  • 2006

  • Schollnberger, H., Mitchel, REJ., Crawford-Brown, DJ. and Hofmann, W., 2006. A model for the induction of chromosome aberrations through direct and bystander mechanisms RADIATION PROTECTION DOSIMETRY, v. 122
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1093/rpd/ncl433
  • Hofmann, W., Crawford-Brown, DJ., Fakir, H. and Monchaux, G., 2006. Modeling lung cancer incidence in rats following exposure to radon progeny RADIATION PROTECTION DOSIMETRY, v. 122
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1093/rpd/ncl492
  • 2005

  • Crawford-Brown, DJ. and Hofmann, W., 2005. Stochastic state-vector model of radiation carcinogenesis applied to radon-induced lung cancer risk Natural Radiation Environment VII, v. 7
    Doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/S1569-4860(04)07077-9
  • 2002

  • Hofmann, W., Crawford-Brown, DJ., Fakir, H. and Caswell, RS., 2002. Energy deposition, cellular radiation effects and lung cancer risk by radon progeny alpha particles RADIATION PROTECTION DOSIMETRY, v. 99
  • 1999

  • Crawford-Brown, DJ. and Marquez-Nyarko, S., 1999. Expert decision support for balancing competing goals and views on rationality: A case study of balancing risks from microbes and DBPs ENVIRONMENTAL MODELING,